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老行者之家-国际私法-《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》(中英文对照版)

《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》(中英文对照版)

作者:全国人大常委会 阅读6721次 更新时间:2011-05-09

Order of the President of the People’s Republic of China
(No.36)
The Law of the Application of Law for Foreign-related Civil Relations of the People’s Republic of China, which has been adopted at the 17th session of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People’s Congress on October 28, 2010, is hereby promulgated and shall come into force on April 1, 2011.
President of the People’s Republic of China Hu Jintao
October 28, 2010
Law of the Application of Law for Foreign-related Civil Relations of the People’s Republic of China
(Adopted at the 17th session of the Standing Committee of the 11th National People’s Congress on October 28, 2010)
Table of Contents
Chapter I General Provisions
Chapter II Civil Subjects
Chapter III Marriage and Family
Chapter IV Inheritance
Chapter V Real Right
Chapter VI Creditor’s Rights
Chapter VII Intellectual Property Rights
Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions
中华人民共和国主席令
(第三十六号)


  《中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法》已由中华人民共和国第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十七次会议于2010年10月28日通过,现予公布,自2011年4月1日起施行。

中华人民共和国主席 胡锦涛
2010年10月28日

中华人民共和国涉外民事关系法律适用法
(2010年10月28日第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第十七次会议通过)

目 录


  第一章 一般规定
  第二章 民事主体
  第三章 婚姻家庭
  第四章 继承
  第五章 物权
  第六章 债权
  第七章 知识产权
  第八章 附则

Chapter I General Provisions
第一章 一般规定


Article 1 This Law is enacted in order to clarify the application of laws concerning foreign-related civil relations, reasonably solve foreign-related civil disputes and safeguard the legal rights and interests of parties.
  第一条 为了明确涉外民事关系的法律适用,合理解决涉外民事争议,维护当事人的合法权益,制定本法。


Article 2 The application of laws concerning foreign-related civil relations shall be determined in accordance with this Law. If there are otherwise special provisions in other laws on the application of laws concerning foreign-related civil relations, such provisions shall prevail.
If there are no provisions in this Law or other laws on the application of any laws concerning foreign-related civil relations, the laws which have the closest relation with this foreign-related civil relation shall apply.
  第二条 涉外民事关系适用的法律,依照本法确定。其他法律对涉外民事关系法律适用另有特别规定的,依照其规定。
  本法和其他法律对涉外民事关系法律适用没有规定的,适用与该涉外民事关系有最密切联系的法律。


Article 3 The parties may explicitly choose the laws applicable to foreign-related civil relations in accordance with the provisions of law.
  第三条 当事人依照法律规定可以明示选择涉外民事关系适用的法律。


Article 4 If there are mandatory provisions on foreign-related civil relations in the laws of the People’s Republic of China, these mandatory provisions shall directly apply.
  第四条 中华人民共和国法律对涉外民事关系有强制性规定的,直接适用该强制性规定。


Article 5 If the application of foreign laws will damage the social public interests of the People’s Republic of China, the laws of the People’s Republic of China shall apply.
  第五条 外国法律的适用将损害中华人民共和国社会公共利益的,适用中华人民共和国法律。


Article 6 As for the application of foreign laws on a foreign-related civil relation, if different laws are enforced in different regions of this foreign country, the laws of the region which has the closest relation with this foreign-related civil relation shall apply.
  第六条 涉外民事关系适用外国法律,该国不同区域实施不同法律的,适用与该涉外民事关系有最密切联系区域的法律。


Article 7 The proper laws applicable to the relevant foreign-related civil relations shall apply to the limitation of action.
  第七条 诉讼时效,适用相关涉外民事关系应当适用的法律。


Article 8 Lex fori shall apply to the determination on the nature of foreign-related civil relations.
  第八条 涉外民事关系的定性,适用法院地法律。


Article 9 Foreign laws applicable to foreign-related civil relations do not include the Law of the Application of Law of this foreign country.
  第九条 涉外民事关系适用的外国法律,不包括该国的法律适用法。


Article 10 Foreign laws applicable to foreign-related civil relations shall be ascertained by the people’s court, arbitral authority or administrative organ. If any party chooses the applicable foreign laws, he shall provide the laws of this country.
If foreign laws can not be ascertained or there are no provisions in the laws of this country, the laws of the People’s Republic of China shall apply.
  第十条 涉外民事关系适用的外国法律,由人民法院、仲裁机构或者行政机关查明。当事人选择适用外国法律的,应当提供该国法律。
  不能查明外国法律或者该国法律没有规定的,适用中华人民共和国法律。

Chapter II Civil Subjects
第二章 民事主体


Article 11 The laws at the habitual residence shall apply to the civil rights capacities of a natural person.
  第十一条 自然人的民事权利能力,适用经常居所地法律。


Article 12 The laws at the habitual residence shall apply to the civil acts capacities of a natural person.
Where a natural person conducting civil activities is determined as incompetent for civil acts in accordance with the laws at the habitual residence but is determined as competent for civil acts in accordance with the laws at the locality of the acts, the laws at the locality of the acts shall apply unless they are related to marriage, family or inheritance.
  第十二条 自然人的民事行为能力,适用经常居所地法律。
  自然人从事民事活动,依照经常居所地法律为无民事行为能力,依照行为地法律为有民事行为能力的,适用行为地法律,但涉及婚姻家庭、继承的除外。


Article 13 The laws at the habitual residence of a natural person shall apply to the declaration of missing or declaration of death.
  第十三条 宣告失踪或者宣告死亡,适用自然人经常居所地法律。


Article 14 The laws at the locality of registration shall apply to such items as the civil rights capacities, civil acts capacities, organizational institutions, rights and obligations of shareholders, etc. of a legal person and its branch.
If the main business place of a legal person is inconsistent with the locality of registration, the laws of the main business place may apply. The main business place of a legal person shall be its habitual residence.
  第十四条 法人及其分支机构的民事权利能力、民事行为能力、组织机构、股东权利义务等事项,适用登记地法律。
  法人的主营业地与登记地不一致的,可以适用主营业地法律。法人的经常居所地,为其主营业地。


Article 15 The laws at the habitual residence of a right holder shall apply to the contents of his right of personality.
  第十五条 人格权的内容,适用权利人经常居所地法律。


Article 16 The laws at the locality of agency act shall apply to agency, but the laws at the locality of agency relation shall apply to the civil relations between the principal and the agent.
The parties concerned may choose the laws applicable to entrustment of agency by agreement.
  第十六条 代理适用代理行为地法律,但被代理人与代理人的民事关系,适用代理关系发生地法律。
  当事人可以协议选择委托代理适用的法律。


Article 17 The parties concerned may choose the laws applicable to trust by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the locality of the trust or of the fiduciary relation shall apply.
  第十七条 当事人可以协议选择信托适用的法律。当事人没有选择的,适用信托财产所在地法律或者信托关系发生地法律。


Article 18 The parties concerned may choose the laws applicable to arbitral agreement by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the locality of the arbitral authority or of the arbitration shall apply.
  第十八条 当事人可以协议选择仲裁协议适用的法律。当事人没有选择的,适用仲裁机构所在地法律或者仲裁地法律。


Article 19 If the laws of the state of nationality are to apply in accordance with this Law and a natural person has more than two nationalities, the laws of the state of nationality in which he has a habitual residence shall apply; if he has no habitual residence in any of the states of nationality, the laws of the state of nationality with which he has the closest relation shall apply. If a natural person has no nationality or his nationality is uncertain, the laws at his habitual residence shall apply.
  第十九条 依照本法适用国籍国法律,自然人具有两个以上国籍的,适用有经常居所的国籍国法律;在所有国籍国均无经常居所的,适用与其有最密切联系的国籍国法律。自然人无国籍或者国籍不明的,适用其经常居所地法律。


Article 20 If the laws at the habitual residence are to apply in accordance with this Law and a natural person’s habitual residence is uncertain, the laws at his current residence shall apply.
  第二十条 依照本法适用经常居所地法律,自然人经常居所地不明的,适用其现在居所地法律。

Chapter III Marriage and Family
第三章 婚姻家庭


Article 21 The laws at the mutual habitual residence of the parties shall apply to the marriage qualifications; if there is no mutual habitual residence, the laws of the mutual state of nationality shall apply; if there is no mutual nationality and the marriage is established at the habitual residence or in the state of nationality of one party, the laws at the locality where the marriage is established shall apply.
  第二十一条 结婚条件,适用当事人共同经常居所地法律;没有共同经常居所地的,适用共同国籍国法律;没有共同国籍,在一方当事人经常居所地或者国籍国缔结婚姻的,适用婚姻缔结地法律。


Article 22 Marriage formalities shall be valid if they conform to the laws at the locality where the marriage is established or the laws at the habitual residence or of the state of nationality of one party.
  第二十二条 结婚手续,符合婚姻缔结地法律、一方当事人经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律的,均为有效。


Article 23 The laws at the mutual habitual residence shall apply to the personal relation between husband and wife; if there is no mutual habitual residence, the laws of the mutual state of nationality shall apply.
  第二十三条 夫妻人身关系,适用共同经常居所地法律;没有共同经常居所地的,适用共同国籍国法律。


Article 24 As for the property relation between husband and wife, the parties concerned may choose the applicable laws at the habitual residence, of the state of nationality or at the locality of the main properties of one party by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the mutual habitual residence shall apply; if there is no mutual habitual residence, the laws of the mutual state of nationality shall apply.
  第二十四条 夫妻财产关系,当事人可以协议选择适用一方当事人经常居所地法律、国籍国法律或者主要财产所在地法律。当事人没有选择的,适用共同经常居所地法律;没有共同经常居所地的,适用共同国籍国法律。


Article 25 The laws at the mutual habitual residence shall apply to the personal and property relations between parents and children; if there is no mutual habitual residence, the laws in favor of protecting the rights and interests of the weak in the laws at the habitual residence or of the state of nationality of one party shall apply.
  第二十五条 父母子女人身、财产关系,适用共同经常居所地法律;没有共同经常居所地的,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律中有利于保护弱者权益的法律。


Article 26 As for a divorce by agreement, the parties concerned may choose the applicable laws at the habitual residence or of the state of nationality of one party by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the mutual habitual residence shall apply; if there is no mutual habitual residence, the laws of the mutual state of nationality shall apply; if there is no mutual nationality, the laws at the locality of the institution handling the divorce formalities shall apply.
  第二十六条 协议离婚,当事人可以协议选择适用一方当事人经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律。当事人没有选择的,适用共同经常居所地法律;没有共同经常居所地的,适用共同国籍国法律;没有共同国籍的,适用办理离婚手续机构所在地法律。


Article 27 The laws at the locality of the court shall apply to a divorce by litigation.
  第二十七条 诉讼离婚,适用法院地法律。


Article 28 The laws at the habitual residence of the adopter and the adoptee shall apply to the qualifications and formalities of adoption. The laws at the habitual residence of the adopter at the time of adoption shall apply to the validity of adoption. The laws at the habitual residence of the adoptee at the time of adoption or at the locality of the court shall apply to the termination of the adoptive relation.
  第二十八条 收养的条件和手续,适用收养人和被收养人经常居所地法律。收养的效力,适用收养时收养人经常居所地法律。收养关系的解除,适用收养时被收养人经常居所地法律或者法院地法律。


Article 29 The laws in favor of protecting the rights and interests of the persons being maintained in the laws at the habitual residence, of the state of nationality or at the locality of the main properties of one party shall apply to maintenance.
  第二十九条 扶养,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律、国籍国法律或者主要财产所在地法律中有利于保护被扶养人权益的法律。


Article 30 The laws in favor of protecting the rights and interests of the persons under guardianship in the laws at the habitual residence or of the state of nationality of one party shall apply to guardianship.
  第三十条 监护,适用一方当事人经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律中有利于保护被监护人权益的法律。

Chapter IV Inheritance
第四章 继承


Article 31 The laws at the habitual residence at the time of death of the deceased shall apply to legal inheritance, but the laws at the locality of the real estate shall apply to the legal inheritance of a real estate.
  第三十一条 法定继承,适用被继承人死亡时经常居所地法律,但不动产法定继承,适用不动产所在地法律。


Article 32 A testament shall be confirmed as valid if its form conforms to the laws at the habitual residence, of the state of nationality or at the locality of the testamentary acts when the testament is made or at the time of death of the testator.
  第三十二条 遗嘱方式,符合遗嘱人立遗嘱时或者死亡时经常居所地法律、国籍国法律或者遗嘱行为地法律的,遗嘱均为成立。


Article 33 The laws at the habitual residence or of the state of nationality when the testament is made or at the time of death of the testator shall apply to the validity of a testament.
  第三十三条 遗嘱效力,适用遗嘱人立遗嘱时或者死亡时经常居所地法律或者国籍国法律。


Article 34 The laws at the locality of an estate shall apply to the administration of estates and related issues.
  第三十四条 遗产管理等事项,适用遗产所在地法律。


Article 35 The laws at the locality of an estate at the time of death of the deceased shall apply to the disposition of a vacant estate.
  第三十五条 无人继承遗产的归属,适用被继承人死亡时遗产所在地法律。

Chapter V Real Right
第五章 物权


Article 36 The laws at the locality of immovables shall apply to the right to immovables.
  第三十六条 不动产物权,适用不动产所在地法律。


Article 37 The parties concerned may choose the laws applicable to the right over the movables by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the locality of the movables when the legal facts take place shall apply.
  第三十七条 当事人可以协议选择动产物权适用的法律。当事人没有选择的,适用法律事实发生时动产所在地法律。


Article 38 The parties concerned may choose the laws applicable to any change of the right over the movables taking place in transportation by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the destination of transportation shall apply.
  第三十八条 当事人可以协议选择运输中动产物权发生变更适用的法律。当事人没有选择的,适用运输目的地法律。


Article 39 The laws at the locality of the realization of the rights of negotiable securities or other laws which have the closest relation with the negotiable securities shall apply to negotiable securities.
  第三十九条 有价证券,适用有价证券权利实现地法律或者其他与该有价证券有最密切联系的法律。


Article 40 The laws at the locality of the establishment of the right of pledge shall apply to the pledge of rights.
  第四十条 权利质权,适用质权设立地法律。

Chapter VI Creditor’s Rights
第六章 债权


Article 41 The parties concerned may choose the laws applicable to contracts by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the habitual residence of the party whose fulfillment of obligations can best reflect the characteristics of this contract or other laws which have the closest relation with this contract shall apply.
  第四十一条 当事人可以协议选择合同适用的法律。当事人没有选择的,适用履行义务最能体现该合同特征的一方当事人经常居所地法律或者其他与该合同有最密切联系的法律。


Article 42 The laws at the habitual residence of consumers shall apply to consumer contracts; If a consumer chooses the applicable laws at the locality of the provision of goods or services or an operator has no relevant business operations at the habitual residence of the consumer, the laws at the locality of the provision of goods or services shall apply.
  第四十二条 消费者合同,适用消费者经常居所地法律;消费者选择适用商品、服务提供地法律或者经营者在消费者经常居所地没有从事相关经营活动的,适用商品、服务提供地法律。


Article 43 The laws at the working locality of laborers shall apply to labor contracts; if it is difficult to determine the working locality of a laborer, the laws at the main business place of the employer shall apply. The laws at the dispatching place of labor services shall apply to labor dispatches.
  第四十三条 劳动合同,适用劳动者工作地法律;难以确定劳动者工作地的,适用用人单位主营业地法律。劳务派遣,可以适用劳务派出地法律。


Article 44 The laws at the place of tort shall apply to liabilities for tort, but if the parties have a mutual habitual residence, the laws at the mutual habitual residence shall apply. If the parties choose the applicable laws by agreement after any tort takes place, the agreement shall prevail.
  第四十四条 侵权责任,适用侵权行为地法律,但当事人有共同经常居所地的,适用共同经常居所地法律。侵权行为发生后,当事人协议选择适用法律的,按照其协议。


Article 45 The laws at the habitual residence of the infringed shall apply to product liabilities; if the infringed chooses the applicable laws at the main business place of the infringer or at the locality of the infringement, or the infringer has no relevant business operations at the habitual residence of the infringed, the laws at the main business place of the infringer or at the locality of the infringement shall apply.
  第四十五条 产品责任,适用被侵权人经常居所地法律;被侵权人选择适用侵权人主营业地法律、损害发生地法律的,或者侵权人在被侵权人经常居所地没有从事相关经营活动的,适用侵权人主营业地法律或者损害发生地法律。


Article 46 If such personal rights as the right of name, right of portrait, right of reputation, right of privacy, etc. are infringed upon via the network or by other means, the laws at the habitual residence of the infringed shall apply.
  第四十六条 通过网络或者采用其他方式侵害姓名权、肖像权、名誉权、隐私权等人格权的,适用被侵权人经常居所地法律。


Article 47 The applicable laws chosen by the parties concerned by agreement shall apply to ill-gotten gains and negotiorum gestio. If the parties do not choose, the laws at the mutual habitual residence of the parties shall apply; if there is no mutual habitual residence, the laws at the locality of ill-gotten gains and negotiorum gestio shall apply.
  第四十七条 不当得利、无因管理,适用当事人协议选择适用的法律。当事人没有选择的,适用当事人共同经常居所地法律;没有共同经常居所地的,适用不当得利、无因管理发生地法律。

Chapter VII Intellectual Property Rights
第七章 知识产权


Article 48 The laws at the locality where protection is claimed shall apply to the ownership and contents of the intellectual property right.
  第四十八条 知识产权的归属和内容,适用被请求保护地法律。


Article 49 A party may choose the laws applicable to the assignment and licensed use of intellectual property right by agreement. If the parties do not choose, the relevant provisions on contracts of this Law shall apply.
  第四十九条 当事人可以协议选择知识产权转让和许可使用适用的法律。当事人没有选择的,适用本法对合同的有关规定。


Article 50 The laws at the locality where protection is claimed shall apply to the liabilities for tort for intellectual property, the parties concerned may also choose the applicable laws at the locality of the court by agreement after the tort takes place.
  第五十条 知识产权的侵权责任,适用被请求保护地法律,当事人也可以在侵权行为发生后协议选择适用法院地法律。

Chapter VIII Supplementary Provisions
第八章 附则


Article 51 If the provisions in Article 146 and Article 147 of the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China and Article 36 of the Law of Succession of the People’s Republic of China do not conform with the provisions in this Law, the provisions in this Law shall prevail.
  第五十一条 《中华人民共和国民法通则》第一百四十六条、第一百四十七条,《中华人民共和国继承法》第三十六条,与本法的规定不一致的,适用本法。


Article 52 This Law shall come into force on April 1, 2011.

  第五十二条 本法自2011年4月1日起施行。